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Urinary Incontinence -- Female

Definition

Urinary incontinence is the loss of voluntary bladder control that can cause leakage of urine. It can be temporary or last for a long time.

There are four types of long term or permanent incontinence:

  • Stress incontinence—most common type. Leakage occurs when there is extra pressure on the bladder. Triggers may include laughing, sneezing, lifting heavy objects, or exercise.
  • Urge incontinence—known as overactive bladder, a loss of bladder control following a strong urge to urinate. The bladder is unable to hold urine long enough to make it to a restroom.
  • Overflow incontinence—the bladder will not empty, so urine builds up and the bladder overflows.
  • Functional incontinence—there is normal bladder control, but the toilet can't be reached in time.

People may have just one or a combination of these types.

Causes

Incontinence has several different causes. The cause could also be unclear.

Temporary incontinence can be caused by:

Muscles Involved in Incontinence in Women
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Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
  • Stress incontinence is an accidental loss of urine during physical activity or coughing, sneezing, and laughing. It may be caused by:
    • Weakening of muscles that suspend the bladder
    • Weakening of muscles that control urine flow
    • Obesity
  • Urge incontinence is the accidental loss of urine when the bladder spasms for no reason. It may be caused or worsened by:
  • Overflow incontinence is leaking of urine due to overfilling up and overflowing from bladder. It may be caused or worsened by:
    • A bladder that is blocked, such as by a scar in the urethra
    • Fecal impaction
    • Drugs such as antidepressants, hypnotics, antipsychotics, antihistamines, or calcium channel blockers
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency
    • Weak bladder muscles
    • Nerve damage due to:
      • Surgery
      • Diabetes
      • Spinal cord injuries
      • Other factors
  • Functional incontinence may be caused by:
    • Medical conditions that make it difficult to move like severe arthritis
    • Drugs that cause confusion or sedation

Some incontinence may be caused by a fistula. A fistula is an abnormal opening between the bladder and another nearby structure. The fistula can make it difficult for the bladder to act as it should.

Risk Factors

Urinary incontinence is more common in women age 65 years or older.

Factors that may increase the risk of urinary incontinence include:

Symptoms

Any loss of bladder control can be considered incontinence.

When Should I Call My Doctor?

Call your doctor if you have a loss of urine control. Your doctor can help you determine the underlying cause.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You will be asked how often you empty your bladder and patterns of urine leakage. Your doctor will do a physical exam to look for any physical causes such as blockages or nerve problems. You may be referred to a specialist.

Your bodily fluids will be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests

The flow of your urine will be assessed. This can be done with:

  • Stress test
  • Urodynamic tests

Your bodily structures may need to be viewed. This can be done with:

Treatment

Treatments are based on the cause of the urinary incontinence.

Temporary incontinence may be relieved by managing the conditions associated with the incontinence.

Weight loss may help reduce the number of episodes due to stress or urge incontinence in people who are overweight or obese. Talk to your doctor about a weight loss program that is right for you.

Stress Incontinence

Initial treatment relies on behavior changes and strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Behavior changes include:

  • Limiting the amount of fluids consumed throughout the day.
  • Decreasing caffeine—caffeine has been linked to worsening of urinary incontinence.
  • Planning frequent bathroom trips throughout the day to prevent accidents.

Methods to increase strength in the pelvic floor muscles include:

  • Kegel exercises —focuses on muscles that hold the bladder in place and those that control urine flow.
  • Painless electrical stimulation—may strengthen the muscles more quickly; helpful for stress incontinence.
  • Pelvic floor exercises using cone-shaped weights that are placed in the vagina.
  • Biofeedback—a device signals how strong you are at contracting your muscles during exercise.

Surgical procedures may be done for incontinence that is not responding to these treatments. Surgical options include:

  • Placement of strips of material or sutures to support structures in the area and relieve pressure on the urethra. There are several different types of surgery but a common option, called a urethral suspension uses mesh to help support the urethra.
  • Collagen injection into the wall of the urethra. This substance bulks up the wall of the urethra to help stop leaks.

Urge Incontinence

Initial treatment depends on behavior changes and strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Behavior changes include:

  • Drinking less fluid throughout the day
  • Avoiding caffeine and alcohol
  • Avoiding drinking at bedtime
  • Keeping a log of urination schedule and accidents.

Kegel exercises can help strengthen pelvic floor muscles and relieve some symptoms.

Medications may be recommended. Anticholinergics is the most common medication. They can relax the muscles of the bladder. Other medications may be used in combination to help manage symptoms, such as botulinum toxin injections.

Nerve stimulation may be used if urge incontinence does not respond to behavior modification or medication. A device will send pulses to the nerves that control the bladder. This has been shown to help stimulate bladder control. In some cases, the device is implanted in the back.

Overflow Incontinence

Treatment for overflow incontinence is to allow the bladder to completely empty. If a blockage is causing the problems, surgery may be needed to open the urine pathways.

Other causes of overflow incontinence may require the use of a tube called a catheter to allow urine to drain from the bladder. People can use certain catheters at home.

Other Management Steps

Absorbent pads or diapers can be used to manage urinary leakage. Plugs and patches can also be used to help hold urine in place.

A supportive device called a pessary may also be used. Pessaries are devices that raise the uterus or the prolapsed bladder. It can decrease pressure on the bladder.

Prevention

Incontinence is a symptom of many other conditions. There are several ways to prevent incontinence:

  • If advised by your doctor, do exercises to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles, such as Kegel exercises. This is especially important if you are pregnant.
  • Reduce your intake of substances that lead to incontinence such as caffeine, alcohol, and certain drugs.
  • Lose weight, if needed.
  • Eat a healthy diet to avoid constipation.

Revision Information

  • Urology Care Foundation

    http://www.urologyhealth.org

  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    http://www.niddk.nih.gov

  • Health Canada

    http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

  • Women's Health Matters

    http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca

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  • Incontinence. American Urologic Association Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=143. Updated March 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • Overactive bladder. American Urological Association Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=112. Updated March 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • Norton P, Brubaker L. Urinary incontinence in women. Lancet. 2006;367:57-67.

  • Sobhgol SS, Charandabee SM. Related factors of urge, stress, mixed urinary incontinence, and overactive bladder in reproductive age women in Tabriz, Iran: a cross-sectional study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dys Function. 2008;19(3):367-373.

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  • Urinary incontinence in women. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 31, 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • Urinary incontinence in women. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/uiwomen. Updated September 18, 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • Wein AJ, Rackley RR. Overactive bladder: a better understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. J Urol. 2006;175:S5-10.

  • What is incontinence? National Association for Continence website. Available at: http://www.nafc.org/bladder-bowel-health. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • 2/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Subak L, Wing R, Smith West D, et al. Weight loss to treat urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:481-490.

  • 1/11/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: AHRQ evidence report on treatment for overactive bladder in women 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov. Published August 2009. Accessed January 11, 2010.

  • 3/5/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Vardy MD, Mitcheson HD, Samuels TA, et al. Effects of solifenacin on overactive bladder symptoms, symptom bother and other patient-reported outcomes: results from VIBRANT—a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63(12):1702-1714.

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  • 12/13/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: University of Texas at Austin, School of Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner Program. Recommendations for the management of urge urinary incontinence in women. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=16322. Published May 2010. Accessed December 13, 2010.

  • 3/5/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Boyle R, Hay-Smith EJ, Cody JD, et al. Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;10:CD007471.

  • 4/29/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Chang SR, Chen KH. Association of mode of delivery with urinary incontinence and changes in urinary incontinence over the first year postpartum. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(3):568-577.

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